Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand
Solene Janique,Wantana Sriratanasak,Kulchana Ketsuwan,Jirapong Jairin,Ekgachai Jeratthitikul
Animal Systematics and?Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of?Biology, Faculty of?Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok?10400, Thailand
Abstract: The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise Fst values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.
Keywords: DNA barcoding;Mitochondrial DNA;Phylogeography;Orseolia oryzae;Repeated;motif;Thailand